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美国FDA“点名”与犬心脏病有关的16种狗粮品牌
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​文章来源:nbcnews(国外新闻网)

 

原文作者:琳达·卡罗尔

琳达·卡洛尔(Linda Carroll)是NBC新闻和路透社健康的定期健康撰稿人。她是《脑震荡危机:一种无声的流行病的解剖》和《出云:征服国王运动的骑兵和有害小马驹》的合著者。

 

编译&注解:平安之家金毛联盟

 

FDA正在调查500多个报告,这些报告似乎将“无谷物”狗粮与犬扩张型心肌病联系起来。

 

DCM:犬扩张型心肌病

 

FDA一直在调查食用某些品牌狗粮的狗狗的心脏病的报告,发现这些食品中含有大量豌豆,小扁豆,其他豆类种子或土豆作为主要成分。

 


 

根据美国食品药品监督管理局的通告,十六种品牌的狗粮可能会增加狗狗患心力衰竭的风险。

 

FDA并未建议宠物主人停止给狗狗喂食这些品牌的狗粮,但一些宠物医生已经在建议不要使用“无谷物”食品。

 

FDA目前正在调查500多个报告,这些报告似乎将“无谷物”狗粮与犬扩张型心肌病联系起来。

 

自2018年7月以来,FDA一直在警告以豌豆,小扁豆或土豆为基础的食品,但上周晚些时候(2019年7月)发布的声明是该机构首次确定这16个品牌名称。

 

这些品牌按与它们关联的案件数量排序,从高到低:

 

Acana(爱肯拿)
Zignature(超越)
Taste of the Wild(荒野盛宴)
4Health(国内没)
Earthborn Holistic(国内没)
Blue Buffalo(蓝馔)
Nature’s Domain(国内没)

 

Fromm(福摩)
Merrick(麻利)
California Natural(凌采旗下加洲天然)
Natural Balance(雪山/天衡宝)
Orijen(渴望)
Nature’s Variety(百利)
NutriSource(国内没)
Nutro(美士)
Rachael Ray Nutrish(国内没)

 

其中ACANA、Zignature 和 Taste of the Wild患病率超过10%

 

大多数报告与干狗粮配方有关,但其中也包括生食,半湿食和湿食。

 


 

FDA没有建议主人改变宠物的饮食。

 

FDA发言人Lindsay Haake表示:“我们并不是说不要使用这些品牌,我们只是在告诉宠物主人多留意狗狗的健康及及时体检。这个问题我们仍在调查中。

 

虽然绝大多数病例发生在狗狗里,也有小部分发生在猫身上。

 

宠医行业的心脏病学家告诉NBC新闻,他们已经有兽医在建议主人停止喂食可疑宠物食品,而非等FDA调查得到结论时再“提议”。

 

“当狗狗来到人群里生活时,我们在历史上得知它是无谷物饮食的,因此开始推广无谷狗粮,”兽医心脏病专家,该病学副教授Anna Gelzer博士(宾夕法尼亚大学兽医学院)说,“可是如今看来,无谷狗粮并没有科学依据可证明的好处,且带有引发DCM的风险,那么我们为什么要冒险呢?

 

宠物食品协会在一份声明中表示,其成员生产98%的美国宠物食品和零食,称其及其成员“召集了营养学家,兽医和产品安全专家一年多,以更好地了解两者之间是否存在关联扩张型心肌病(DCM)和饮食。

 

PFI同意FDA的声明,即这是一个复杂的问题,有许多因素需要科学评估。

 

(小编补充:在查英系金毛的国外资料时,附带看到了“无谷粮和心脏病”的言论,文章里也一样说了,这是多因素导致的,牛磺酸缺乏只是其中一种表现,因为猫粮里都有加牛磺酸,但也出现了类似问题。

 

“如果考虑到狼,它们可能会摄取它们捕食的反刍动物的内含物,因此它们一定能够吃谷物。没有科学依据是没有谷物的。

 

(编译注解:这句表达的意思是,当初推广“无谷粮”时,是因为狗是狼演变的,参考了狼的饮食;可是如今看来,狼会捕食反刍动物,并且把这些动物胃连同里面的东西一起吃掉,这里面可能就包含谷物。

 

Gelzer教授说,心力衰竭是大体型品种犬的常见问题,例如大丹麦犬和德国牧羊犬,向FDA报告最常见的心脏病品种是金毛猎犬,和拉布拉多猎犬

 

(小编补充:近期了解的国外资料表明,金毛犬是狗狗里易出现“牛磺酸缺乏”的犬种,所以建议金毛犬主人们多注意牛磺酸的补充

 

 

 

但是近期这种病开始在较小体型品种犬中出现,这引起了兽医的注意,最终引起了FDA的注意。

 

Gelzer教授说:“对于宾夕法尼亚州的我们来说,我们在2017年末开始发现这类病例异常罕见,因为它们属于较小的品种,例如史宾格犬和比格犬,而这些品种犬患扩张型心肌病一般很少见。

 

知道已有研究表明饮食可以在狗的心脏病发展中起作用,我们开始向每个患病狗狗的主人调查他们狗狗的饮食。

 

最终,Gelzer教授和其他人发现了一个共同点:不含谷物的狗粮,它用小扁豆,豌豆和鹰嘴豆等替代品代替了谷物。

 

Gelzer教授不确切知道无谷物宠物食品的趋势是如何开始的,怀疑它与消费者对似乎更健康食品的需求有关。

 

Gelzer教授说:“这种宣传并非科学。” “如果考虑到狼,它们可能会摄入捕食的反刍动物的胃内含物,因此它们肯定能够吃谷物。没有谷物是没有科学依据的。

 

Gelzer教授说,一般来说,当狗对食物产生过敏时,就是对这种蛋白质过敏。因此,兽医通常会转而使用具有不同蛋白质来源的食物来治疗该问题。

 

Gelzer教授说,DCM的主要问题之一是,狗直到病重时才会表现出这种疾病的症状-嗜睡,运动不耐症,呼吸急促。

 

她指出了一个客户的例子,该客户带着一只被诊断患有DCM的病重狗来。一家人养了第二只看似健康的狗,但由于他们俩都在吃无谷物的狗粮,Gelzer教授建议他们带第二只狗来体检。

 

我们不知道这些饮食中使用的代替谷物的食物是否引起了问题,也可能是某种毒素。

 

她说:“当我们评估第二只狗时,它的心脏功能也下降了,但仍然是亚临床的。” “这只狗看起来并不异常,因为它处于早期阶段。

 

Gelzer教授不确定如果将那些早期阶段的狗换成其他食物,结果是否会好转。她说:“当饮食结构改变时,一些狗狗会变得更好;但也有些狗狗保持不变,并需要通过药物维持现状;还有些狗狗改变了饮食并使用了我们可以给予的所有心脏药物,但仍然死亡。

 

显然,宠物主人之所以在喂养这些品牌,是因为他们“觉得无谷狗粮更有利于狗狗健康,而非狗狗真的对无谷过敏”,康奈尔大学兽医学院临床科学系兽医心脏病学家布鲁斯·科恩赖希(Bruce Kornreich)博士说。

 

Kornreich说:“我们不知道这些饮食中使用的代替谷物的成分是否会引起问题,也可能是某种毒素。

 

FDA敦促主人发现爱犬表现出任何心脏病症状,包括精力下降,咳嗽或呼吸困难,尽快联系兽医体检。

 

汪星球狗友群,欢迎家养狗狗的家长们~群主:pinky160111

 

《养狗手札》全篇,见公众号:金毛狗友群

血统金毛科普+联盟娃记录,见公众号:平安之家金毛联盟

 

 

原文:

FDA names 16 brands of dog food linked to canine heart disease

The FDA is investigating more than 500 reports that appear to link dog foods that are marketed as "grain free" to canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

Image; Hungry labrador retriever is feeding at home.

 The FDA has been investigating reports of canine heart disease in dogs eating certain pet foods which contained a high proportion of peas, lentils, other legume seeds or potatoes as main ingredients.Chalabala / Getty Images/iStockphoto

July 2, 2019, 6:05 AM CST / Updated July 2, 2019, 8:57 PM CST

By Linda Carroll

Sixteen brands of dog food may be associated with a heightened risk of heart failure in dogs, according to the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA isn't suggesting that pet owners stop feeding their dogs the particular brands yet, but some vets are already advising against "grain free" foods.

 

The FDA is currently investigating more than 500 reports that appear to link dog foods that are marketed as "grain free" to canine dilated cardiomyopathy. The FDA has been warning about the foods based on peas, lentils or potatoes since July 2018, but the statement released late last week is the first time the agency has identified the 16 brand names.

 

The brands are ordered by the number of cases linked to them, which ranged from a high of 67 to 10:

 

Acana

Zignature

Taste of the Wild

4Health

Earthborn Holistic

Blue Buffalo

Nature’s Domain

Fromm

Merrick

California Natural

Natural Balance

Orijen

Nature’s Variety

NutriSource

Nutro

Rachael Ray Nutrish

Most of the reports were associated with dry dog food formulations, but raw food, semi-moist food and wet foods were included. The FDA has not suggested owners change their pets’ diets.

 

“We’re not saying don’t use these brands, we’re just telling pet owners to work directly with their veterinarians because we’re still investigating,” Lindsay Haake, a spokesperson for the FDA, said.

 

While the vast majority of cases have been in dogs, there have also been some in cats.

 

Veterinary cardiologists told NBC News that they aren’t waiting for the FDA investigation to conclude before advising owners to stop feeding the suspect pet foods.

 

“When a dog comes to us and we learn during the history that it’s on a grain-free diet, we advise switching to a non-grain-free diet,” said Dr. Anna Gelzer, a veterinary cardiologist and an associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. “There’s no scientifically proven benefit to grain-free foods, so why take a chance?”

 

In a statement, the Pet Food Institute, whose members make 98 percent of U.S. pet foods and treats, said it and its members “have convened nutritionists, veterinarians and product safety specialists for more than a year to better understand whether there is a relationship between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and diet. PFI agrees with the FDA's statements that this is a complex issue with many factors requiring scientific evaluation.”

 

If you think about wolves, they may ingest the contents of ruminant animals they preyed on, so they are certainly capable of eating grain. There’s no scientific reason for going without grain.

Heart failure is a known issue for larger breeds of dogs, such as Great Danes and German Shepherds, Gelzer said. The breeds most frequently reported to the FDA for the heart disease were golden retrievers, mixed and Labrador retrievers.

 

But recently the condition started showing up in smaller breeds, which is what caught the attention of veterinarians and eventually the FDA.

 

“For us at Penn, we started to see cases in late 2017 that stuck out as unusual because they were in smaller breeds such as springer spaniels and beagles that you don’t typically see with canine dilated cardiomyopathy,” Gelzer said.

 

Knowing there had been studies showing that diet could play a role in the development of heart disease in dogs, “we started making investigations into what each owner was feeding.”

 

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Ultimately Gelzer and others found there was a common denominator: grain-free dog foods, which had replaced grains with substitutes such as lentils, peas and chickpeas.

 

Gelzer doesn’t know exactly how the grain-free pet food trend started, but suspects it had to do with consumer demand for what seemed like a healthier alternative.

 

“It didn’t come from the science side,” Gelzer said. “If you think about wolves, they may ingest the contents of ruminant animals they preyed on, so they are certainly capable of eating grain. There’s no scientific reason for going without grain.”

 

 

 

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Generally when dogs develop a food allergy, it’s to a protein, Gelzer said. So, veterinarians will often switch to a food with a different protein source to treat the problem.

 

One of the big problems with DCM is that dogs don’t show symptoms of the disease — lethargy, exercise intolerance, shortness of breath — until they’re very sick, Gelzer said.

 

She points to the example of clients who came in with a very sick dog that was diagnosed with DCM. The family had a second dog that seemed healthy, but because both were eating a grain-free dog food, Gelzer suggested bringing in the second dog to be checked.

 

What we don’t know is if [the foods] used in these diets in place of grains are causing the problem. It’s also possible that could be some kind of toxin.

 

“When we evaluated that dog, it also had decreased heart function, but it was still subclinical,” she said. “The dog didn’t look abnormal because it was at an early stage.”

 

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Gelzer isn’t sure what the results will be if those early stage dogs are switched to a different food. “Some get better when the diet is changed,” she said. “Some stay the same and keep the status quo with medications and some die despite changing the diet and getting all the heart medications we can give.”

 

While it’s clear that pet owners are feeding these brands because they “are trying to do what they perceive as the right thing for their dogs, unless the dog has a documented sensitivity to grains, it’s probably not worth the risk at this point to feed these products,” said Dr. Bruce Kornreich, a veterinary cardiologist in the department of clinical sciences at the Veterinary College of Cornell University and associate director of the Cornell Feline Health Center.

 

“What we don’t know is if [the foods] used in these diets in place of grains are causing the problem,” Kornreich said. “It’s also possible that could be some kind of toxin.”

 

Kornreich suggests pet owners switch to a brand “produced by a company with a long-standing history.”

 

If a pet dog is showing any symptoms of the heart condition, including decreased energy, cough or difficulty breathing, the FDA urges owners to contact a vet as soon as possible.

 

Linda Carroll

Linda Carroll is a regular health contributor to NBC News and Reuters Health. She is coauthor of "The Concussion Crisis: Anatomy of a Silent Epidemic" and "Out of the Clouds: The Unlikely Horseman and the Unwanted Colt Who Conquered the Sport of Kings." 

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